Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Faulkner presents sexual want in The Sound and the Fury as an oddity of both ensnarement and opportunity. As he works his way through the nonlinear piece, data about sexuality of the characters, sexual images, and unfilled want present themselves, each remarking on each other straightforwardly and by implication. T. S. EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Waste LandÃ¢â¬ fills in as an accommodating focal point in understanding the prerequisites to get away from the waste place where there is the demolished Compson family by giving a background on which The Sound and the Fury can be anticipated. In The Sound and the Fury, Faulkner explores different avenues regarding the arrangement of the person in regard to time and different characters so as to present sexual talk such that remarks on the need of sexual comprehension in the cutting edge world. T.S. EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Waste LandÃ¢â¬ offers an understanding of the advanced world that on one hand underscores the bafflement of things to come in a world that is divided and exposed, and then again, presents a case for perceiving opportunity and significance in the Ã¢â¬Å"heap of split imagesÃ¢â¬ that make up the cutting edge atmosphere. The initial portion Ã¢â¬Å"The Burial of the DeadÃ¢â¬ looks toward a future that is made out of parts and oddity. The sections in the waste land that is introduced are that of memory. All the more explicitly, the pieces speak to a disappointment in the human condition to interface recollections of the past to those of the present in a manner that is confident and rousing. Gem Spears Brooker and Joseph Bentley present this idea in Reading the Waste Land: Modernism and the Limits of Interpretation. Here they portray a waste land wherein Ã¢â¬Å"She [Marie] sees the dualistic and confusing present as barbarous in light of the fact tha t, in recalling the past and intuiting the future, sh... ...cterÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual wants yet rather advances bits of symbolism to propose an importance. This takes into consideration the peruser to decipher which rendition of sexual want is the best. As it were, the content proposals the same number of understandings of sexuality in the cutting edge sense as there are perusers since the wellspring of sexual want isn't in every case plainly expressed. Faulkner actualizes along these lines a round rationale to comprehend sexuality in the advanced world, it is the reason for moral rot in the cutting edge world, yet sexual want is conceived out of the need to bits together the cutting edge world somehow or another. At last, one can peruse The Sound and the Fury through the viewpoint of EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Waste LandÃ¢â¬ to accumulate the significance of clinging to only enough of the past while flooding toward the future, permitting wants to grab hold and guide the characters to a goal that offers knowledge into oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Walmart Pepe Jeans Operations Essay Case: Pepe Jeans Pepe Jeans started to deliver and sell denim pants in the mid 1970s in the United Kingdom and has accomplished colossal development. The organization keeps in touch with its free retailers through gathering of 10 operators and every specialist is answerable for retailers in a specific region of the nation. Pepe is persuaded that a decent connection with the autonomous retailers is crucial to its prosperity. The review of the free retailers demonstrated a few issues. It was felt that PepeÃ¢â¬â¢s assortment of styles and quality was the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s key favorable position over the opposition. Anyway the independents were discontent with PepeÃ¢â¬â¢s necessity to put in firm requests a half year ahead of time with no chance revisions, retraction, or continue requesting. Some guaranteed that the resolute request framework constrained them to arrange less, bringing about stock outs. Pepe felt that a change would have been required soon. The most effortless arrangement would be work with the Hong Kong sourcing specialist to lessen the lead time related with orders yet this was going to expand the expense fundamentally. Indeed, even with the noteworthy increment in cost, predictable conveyance calendars would be hard to keep. Another recommendation was to construct a completing activity in United Kingdom. Pepe was intrigued to perceive how framework functioned at U. S. tasks. They found that they would need to keep around six weeksÃ¢â¬â¢ gracefully of fundamental pants close by in the United Kingdom and they need to contribute ? 1,000,000 worth of gear. They additionally assessed that it would cost about ? 500,000 to work the office every year. We will compose a custom paper test on Walmart Pepe Jeans Operations explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom exposition test on Walmart Pepe Jeans Operations explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom exposition test on Walmart Pepe Jeans Operations explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer They could find the office in the storm cellar of current place of business, and the redesigns would cost ? 300,000. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s tasks the board numerous organizations redistribute. Organizations have assortment of purposes behind re-appropriating however essentially the reasons are to lessen costs and make an upper hand. Organizations will in general redistribute in coordinations zone. This incorporates total pattern of material stream; from the buy and inner control of creation materials to the arranging and control of work-in-process; to the buying, transportation, and dissemination of the completed item. Pepe Jeans redistributed in coordinations territory. Despite the fact that the organization was fruitful and beneficial doing as such, this brought about wasteful conveyance time and miserable retailers because of the limitations of the re-appropriated organization requesting half year lead time in requesting items. Presently organization confronted with changing the manner in which the creation stream works so as to react the retailers and free agentsÃ¢â¬â¢ grievances. As it demonstrates at themanager. organization organizations that surge abroad looking for low creation expenses might be strolling into a vital snare. Its simple to think little of the concealed expenses in long gracefully chains and their effect on gainfulness. Clients in re-appropriating exchanges face both immediate and roundabout dangers. On the off chance that your re-appropriating merchant neglects to perform, you may endure direct harms as cash based costs brought about to play out the capacity yourself or recruit another seller, and brought down benefits brought about by lost business and mischief to your notoriety. Deliberately, a primary objective of re-appropriating has consistently been to move hazard from the client to the merchant. However, while the dangers emerging from executing new advancements and work markets can be moved along these lines, CIOs realize that not all hazard can be given off. A wide range of dangers including accounts and generosity can emerge from disappointments in re-appropriated capacities. Basically, operational hazard consistently stays with the client. Youre consistently mindful to the commercial center for your own presentation. As the articles above demonstrate dangers of re-appropriating, we see this very model with Pepe Jeans. The limitations of re-appropriated organization in Hong Kong made it hard for Pepe pants to react client needs and made them truly unyielding to its clients (retailers). It appears Pepe Jeans may lose its gainfulness with re-appropriating where the underlying object was to set aside cash. Sourcing organization in Hong Kong consented to abbreviate the lead time to about a month and a half rather than half year, yet the organization showed this would expand the expense essentially. On the off chance that I was the CEO of Pepe Jeans, IÃ¢â¬â¢d see what is gainful for my organization. IÃ¢â¬â¢d attempt to plunk down with the sourcing organization to renegotiate the agreement to have the option to satisfy the two sides. What I comprehend from the contextual analysis is that there are just couples of alternatives spread out for Pepe Jeans. One is the renegotiating with Hong Kong based sourcing organization and it appears as though they offered a lead time of about a month and a half yet a critical increment in cost yet the case doesn't demonstrate how a lot. Other choice is to move the completing tasks to United Kingdom. The case shows that this will be expensive for Pepe Jeans. They should put away tremendous measure of cash for both buying the gear and working the office. This will profit the organization such that it would lessen the expense by some rate in light of the fact that the volumes would be higher. The last alternative is to find the office in the cellar of current place of business which would spare Pepe Jeans about ? 200,000 every year. I would recommend keeping the office in the storm cellar. Thoroughly considering of the crate, I would propose them to utilize online requesting framework among retailers, operators, and the sourcing organization. Having precise and cutting-edge perceivability of stock implies that client requests can be kept an eye on location and prepared promptly, altogether improving the general satisfaction rate. This would empower the ongoing perceivability of what is accessible from the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ point of view. I figure this would be a least expensive arrangement. Obviously the expense would include planning and executing this IT arrangements and furthermore the preparation the end-clients. Another advantage might be cost investment funds because of less request passage blunders, expanded incomes because of less lost deals because of poor stock perceivability. Reference: 1)www. themanager. organization 2)www. redistributing legitimate. com 3)www. optimizemag. com Case 2: Wal-Mart There are different mysteries to Wal-Marts influence in the commercial center. One is that, much better than its rivals, Wal-Mart comprehended the intensity of data. It changed the retail business by pioneering another path with data innovation. Wal-Mart abused the enchantment of the data covered up in the standardized tag. This move put Wal-Mart on the ball, and in front of its providers, as far as seeing precisely what buyers need and are purchasing. Wal-Mart is known with its flexibly fasten from manufacturing plant floor to store rack, demanding in the nick of time conveyances from its providers to chop burn through and down-time in distribution centers. Wal-Mart has incredible force on makers and providers; procedure of creation, development of the merchandise, warehousing of the products, ensuring that it shows up at the correct spot at the perfect time. Along these lines Wal-Mart has capacity to play with the cost. So they demand that it be done inexpensively, it be done precisely, it be done rapidly. Wal-Mart comprehends what it needs, when it needs, and where it needs it. The bar-coding transformation makes this conceivable. For instance, the organization realizes what size shirt, what shading, long-sleeves, short-sleeves Ã¢â¬ an exact portrayal of the item. At the point when a store filters a thing when it is purchased, the data is promptly gathered. So Wal-Mart knows where you got it, the brand name, etc. At the point when the deals are recorded, a request is created. A request is naturally produced that night at 12 PM, when the home office gets that data through their information ports. At that point that request goes to the conveyance offices all through the organization, and that dispersion office, the distribution center, takes care of that request, and the request is sitting back on the rack the following night or the next night. They additionally comprehend what costs are mainstream, so they can say: We need to sell this at a specific cost. You make it at a specific cost, or were not going to work with you. This gives Wal-Mart an amazing influence and purchasing power in the commercial center and over its rivals. Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s Vice President for Federal and International Corporate clarifies the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s accomplishment with these words. Sam Walton began the way toward saying you dont become fruitful by making a procedure to have bigger edges. What you accomplish is you take a shot at flexibly chain efficiencies from various perspectives. You give those investment funds to the client; you dont put them in your pocket. You give them to clients. That vo lume compensates for the thing by-thing lower edge, maybe, and that volume permits you to develop and succeed and thrive. It makes additionally client dependability, realizing they can come to us unfailingly and locate the most reduced cost. Thus our worldwide sourcing isn't to make higher edges. That is not what its there to accomplish. Its there to accomplish having low-estimated products so we can give those low-valued merchandise to our consumersÃ¢â¬ The foundation of Wal-Marts expanded productivity was its pattern determining programming, which followed purchaser conduct. In 1985, Sam Walton and his central lieutenant, David Glass, started building up a program called Retail Link. The product, and the equipment that accompanied it, took a long time to consummate, in the end costing $4 billion. This progressive framework conveyed advanced data on customer conduct, drawn from the information imbedded in the scanner tags that went through checkout cou
Thursday, August 20, 2020
Important Facts and Statistics about COPD Addiction Nicotine Use Smoking-Related Diseases Print Key Facts and Statistics About COPD By Terry Martin facebook twitter Terry Martin quit smoking after 26 years and is now an advocate for those seeking freedom from nicotine addiction. Learn about our editorial policy Terry Martin Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Sanja Jelic, MD on August 20, 2015 Sanja Jelic, MD, is board-certified in sleep medicine, critical care medicine, pulmonary disease, and internal medicine. Learn about our Medical Review Board Sanja Jelic, MD Updated on February 06, 2020 Hero Images / Getty Images More in Addiction Nicotine Use Smoking-Related Diseases After You Quit How to Quit Smoking Nicotine Withdrawal The Inside of Cigarettes Alcohol Use Addictive Behaviors Drug Use Coping and Recovery Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, is a term that has been assigned to a group of life-threatening lung diseases that affect normal breathing. They are: Chronic bronchitisEmphysemaRefractory (non-reversible) asthmaSome forms of bronchiectasis Cigarette smoking is the primary risk factor for COPD and accounts for approximately 80% of all cases in the United States today. Breathing in other pollutants at home or in the workplace, respiratory infections and even genetic factors can also play a part in developing COPD, but by and large, it is a cigarette smokers disease. Secondhand smoke can also be a significant contributor to COPD, even if the person breathing it in has never smoked. Statistics Lets take a look at some of the statistics associated with this common group of diseases. In 2012, approximately 3 million people lost their lives to COPD around the world. That number represents 6% of all deaths globally for that year.COPD is the third leading cause of death in the U.S, beaten only by cancer (2nd leading cause) and heart disease (leading cause). Globally, it is the 5th leading cause of death.Estimates are that by the year 2030, COPD will rise to the 3rd leading cause of death worldwide unless urgent action isnt taken to reduce tobacco use.Upwards of 24 million people suffer from some form of COPD currently in America, but only about half that number have been diagnosed. Many people with breathing problems dont realize they are the result of COPD.Approximately 65 million people worldwide have moderate to severe COPD, according to the World Health Organization.More than 90% of COPD-related deaths occur in low and middle-income countries.COPD is more common in American women (6.7%) than men (5.2) today.Female smokers are 13 times more likely to die of COPD than women who have never smoked. For men, the risk is 12 times that of their non-smoking male counterparts.Women are diagnosed with chronic bronchitis at approximately twice the rate of men. In 2011, 6.8 million women had chronic bronchitis compared to 3.3 million men in the same time period.Emphysema used to primarily affect men, but not any longer. Women outrank men here as well currently, with 2.6 million cases of emphysema reported in 2011, compared to 2.1 million for men.Emphysema is usually slow to develop. Of the 4.7 million cases ever reported, more than 90% of them were in people who were 45 years or older.In the United States, one in five hospitalizations of people over the age of 40 is due to COPD. Over 800,000 hospitalizations each year in the U.S. are related to COPD.Both Alabama and Kentucky have COPD prevalence rates that are over 9%.It is estimated that 90% of people with COPD are current or former smokers. The most common symptoms of COPD are feelings of breathlessness (like you cannot get enough air), a chronic cough, and abnormal sputum/mucus in the airways. If you are concerned that you might have COPD, please see your doctor right away. The unfortunate truth is that COPD is not curable. It is possible to slow or stop the progression of the disease if it is diagnosed early, however, and proactive measures are taken to halt exposure to the irritants causing the problem. Quit Smoking Today Make the commitment to put smoking behind you for good. The work it takes to quit is minor when compared to the benefits that will come into your life once youre free of nicotine addiction.
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Systems Theory Paper Communication is essential in our society today. There are many different types and methods of communication that people use. Throughout life, people learn to use communication in order to interact in the everyday world. People form groups to place themselves where they think they belong in society. Whether people know they are doing it or not, they consciously or subconsciously place themselves into certain groups. There are many different reasons for people to join different groups, these being for learning, activity, personal growth, and problem solving. Members of groups must all contribute in order to complete a task. People can have both positive and negative effects on groups. There are many concepts thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The ripple effect is a strong element that can be a good or bad thing for groups. Another element that is important in groups and systems is dynamic equilibrium. Dynamic equilibrium deals with managing stability and change within a group. If a g roup doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t manage their equilibrium, than they will be affected negatively. However, if their equilibrium is managed than they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t run into any problems. For example, if there is too much stability in a group than it is not healthy, and if there is too much change in a group than it can be overwhelming and things may get out of hand. There is a certain medium that a system should be at in order to promote growth and success within that group. For example, if a sports team decides to never practice than they will not grow or excel, but if they practice too much than they will be tired for the game and will not perform as well. Dynamic equilibrium is an important element within systems. Finally, an essentially important element within systems is the group size and complexity. The more members that a group has, the more complex problems they are going to have to deal with. Size is a critical element in any human system. For example, even with such a basic group need t o schedule meetings, as the size of the group increases, problems increase. The more people that are in a group, the more people that are not going to be able to meet on a certain date.Show MoreRelatedSystems Theory Paper2183 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesWeek Four: Systems Theory Paper Nisselly Rossell, Keri Welborn, Christie Alston, Kristy Monroe, Jennifer Bourne, Melanie Hines BSHS/312 Models of Helping People Systems Theory Paper Ã¢â¬Å"Those who study systems theory tends to view any system as the result of a dynamic interrelationship between its component parts and its whole. They view the parts as mutually determinate with the whole. Social workers utilizing systems theory view societies and social groups as dynamic systems. They are concernedRead MoreBowen Systems Theory Paper1598 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBowen Systems Theory The primary focus is on the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to differentiate her/his own intellectual functioning from feelings and the social and curtirial . sociocultural experiences influence and shape perceptions of self and family interactions, and how personal relationships are affected by two primary factors of individuality and togetherness (Bowen Family Therapy, n.d.; Nichols, 2013). Dr. BowenÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of human behavior focuses on all the members of the family as a single emotionalRead MoreEvaluation Of An E File System836 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSociotechnical Theory, is concentrated on a certain type of Ã¢â¬Ëproduction systemÃ¢â¬â¢, in this case an E-File system. Socio Technical Theory is an intellectual model that helps us recognize patterns in the way technology is used. How well businesses can utilize this model can make or break the success or failure of an organization as they change the way they do business or introduce new technology to their workforce. In looking at the case study by Painter B he mentions the renovation of a paper method toRead MoreOrganizational Development Paper999 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOrganizational Development Paper Jane Doe PSY/428 October 24, 2011 Instructor Organizational Development Paper Organizational development is crucial to building a strong organization. Change in organizational mission, change in the economy, and change of inner structural changes can organizational mission, change in the economy, and change of inner structural changes can necessitate organizational development. When these changes occur, businesses seek outside organizationalRead MoreAn Open Systems Theory Approach956 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthis paper is to identify a problem that my health care organization is having with staff members using the Nursing Services Delivery Theory thus affecting nursing staff satisfaction and patient outcomes. I will also describe how the organizational problem is affecting the delivery of nursing services using the systems theory model. Furthermore, I will identify goals that can solve the organizational problem and translate these goals into policies and procedures using an open systems theory approachRead MoreSystem Theory And System Model942 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Systems Theory in Nursing Ashkan Bastani Walden University NURS Ã¢â¬â 6053N-12: Interprofessional Organizational and Systems Leadership 01, 30, 2015 System Theory in Nursing System theory and system models provide extensive holistic and system-based approach to nursing that consists of an element of flexibility and interdisciplinary study of the system Nursing-theory.org., 2015). The theoryÃ¢â¬â¢s primary concern is on patientÃ¢â¬â¢s response to potential or actual environmental pressuresRead Moresystem theory1652 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageschange in organizations is systems theory and systems thinking. There are two main definitions of a system, an implicit and an explicit phrase, with the explicit phrase being used in system thinking by organizations. The definition refers to a system as being a collection of highly integrated parts or subsystems that attain a specific goal, through inputs that are processed into precise outputs. And thus if a part of this highly-linked system is changed, the overall system is also changed. This isRead MoreEvaluation Of A Project On Training Curriculum Development1198 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespoint for the capstone project . The research uses evidence from conceptual theories to database research literature from several learning organizations training development methodologies. Booth, W. C., Colomb, G. G., Williams, J. M. (2008) pointed out that one good source is worth more than dozens of mediocre sources. II. Describe a plan to collect and organize literature that uses systems, action science, and change theory to explain the topic. This capstone project literature review plan willRead MoreSystem Thinking And Theories Of Organizations1246 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSystem Thinking and Theories in Organizations The business world is growing and becoming more innovative every day. Leaders have to be ready to keep up with the changes in the global economy. These changes can affect their decision making and enhance the organization s growth. System thinking and system theories help analyze and understand the relationships between the systems and objects in order to make better decisions. This paper will discuss some aspects of system thinking and system theoriesRead MoreThe Theory And The Biopsychosocial Theory Essay1734 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction To Paper Introduction In this paper, I will both explain what the ecosystems theory and the biopsychosocial theory are and demonstrate how to use these theories to analyze how events and circumstances in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life might affect how they develop later in life. I have interviewed Kari, my mother, and asked her a few questions to get an idea about the kind of childhood she experienced and the kind of environment she was raised in. It is very interesting getting the chance to ask your
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Imagine going to the corner store that you have gone to for the past twenty years, once there, you forget how to get home. Imagine going to your grandsonÃ¢â¬â¢s football game, once there, you forget that your grandson is the boy wearing the number seven on his jersey. Imagine being hungry, going into the kitchen and putting a pot of soup on the stove, once there you forget you are hungry and decide to go to bed. This is life with AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease (AD). AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease (AD) is a brain disease that slowly eradicates recollection, thinking skills and slowly the ability to perform menial tasks. AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease is classified as the loss of cognitive functioning-thinking, remembering, and reasoning- and behavioral abilities to such anÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The distinction between the different forms of dementia and AD is marked by the course of the diseaseÃ¢â¬â¢s progression. AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease was named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer, who in 1906 diagnosed changes in the mental status of one of his patients, before and after death, upon dissection of her brain. The symptoms included memory loss, language problems, unpredictable behaviors and mental acuity difficulty. Observing the cross section of a healthy brain and one of an AD patient indicate atrophy of brain tissue. The location of the shrinking indicates the severity of the type of dementia and magnitude of AD. The beginning stages of AD usually take place in the hippocampus portion of the brain. This is the region of the brain where memories are formed. During the atrophy of the disease this area begins to shrink and throughout the duration of the disease it shrinks to the point where this region has little to no functionality. Memory problems are the first signs of cognitive impairment related to AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. (**4) However, the symptoms vary from person to person. It does not necessarily have to memory that is an initial symptom. The majority of dementia takes place in the brain. It is the location in the area of the brain atrophy as well as the amount of the brain that is affected that produce patient symptoms. The brainÃ¢â¬â¢s 100 billion nerve cells (neurons)
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(98) " of the comments mirrored those that were made in the QWL Teams and Strategic Planning Committee\." Iranian J Publ Iranian J Publ Health, Vol. 36, No. 4, 2007, pp. We will write a custom essay sample on An Approach Model for EmployeesÃ¢â¬â¢ Improving Quality of Work or any similar topic only for you Order Now 81-86 Health, Vol. 36, No. 4, 2007, pp. 81-86 Original Article An Approach Model for EmployeesÃ¢â¬â¢ Improving Quality of Work Life (IQWL) *H Dargahi 1, J Nasle Seragi 2 1 Dept. of Health Care Management, School of Allied Health Medicine, Medical Sciences/University of Tehran, Iran 2 Dept. of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Medical Sciences/University of Tehran, Iran Abstract ch Keywords: Quality of life, Model, Employees, Iran ive Background: Organizational features can affect how employers view on their QWL is an important consideration for employees interested in improving employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ job satisfaction. The research reported here aimed to provide the processes used to investigate and implement a pathway for TUMS Employees Improving of Quality of Work Life as an approach model. Methods: A Quality of Work Life Strategic Planning Committee was formed to focus on enhancing TUMS employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ quality of work life. In the next step 30 QWL teams consisting of managers and employees were conducted in each of 15 as all of TUMS Hospitals. Committee members identified similar key themes of dissatisfaction. Based on the key themes identified, a survey was developed by QWL Strategic Planning by the questionnaires which distributed to 942 employees and 755 of them were returned. The collected data were saved by SPSS software and analyzed by statistical method. Results: The results from the survey showed that the perceived strongest areas among 12 categories developed by QWL Strategic Planning Committee that employees agreed to improve on their QWL were communication, leadership monetary an non- monetary compensation and support. This committee evaluated the outcomes of QWL managers and employees teams to improve the employees, quality of work life at 15 TUMS Hospitals. Conclusion: The QWL Strategic Planning Committee recommend a new approach model to suggest the ways which impressive on the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ improving QWL. Introduction There is not a common accepted definition for quality of work life. In health care organizations, such as hospitals, quality of work life (QWL) has been described as referring to the strengths and weakness in total work environment (1). Organizational features can affect how employees view on their quality of work life. It is an important consideration for employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ to be interested in improving their job satisfaction (2). Organizational features such as policies and procedures, leadership style, operations, and general contextual factors have a profound effect on how employees view the quality of their work life. QWL is an umbrella term which includes many concepts. Because the perceptions held by Ar of SI employees play an important role in their decision to enter, stay with or leave an organization, it is important that employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ perceptions be included when assessing QWL (3). Achievement of the improving quality of work life (IQWL) promotes the better use of existing workforce skills and increased employees involvement. Most importantly, it encourages and supports the enhancement of the internal skills base to create a more professional, motivated and efficient working environment. There are several frameworks used by organizations to improve their performance through the development of their employees. The standard framework supports continuous improvement by encouraging managers to evaluate the internal 81 *Corresponding author: Tel: +98 21 88965608, Fax: +98 21 88951775, E-mail: hdargahi@sina. ums. ac. ir D (Received 19 Jan 2007; accepted 6 Aug 2007) www. SID. ir H Dargahi, J Nasle Seragi: An Approach Model forÃ¢â¬ ¦ Materials and Methods To assist in achieving defined objectives and recognition of quality work life issues and indicators, the Quality of Work Life Strategic Planning Committee was formed in Tehran university of Medical Sciences. The mem bers of this committee were two hospital medical managers, two hospital administrators and one occupational health expert teamed to gather to determine strategic planning and priority to focus on enhancing the quality of work life of TUMS Employees. In the first meeting, this committee ensured a continued commitment to improve and focus on the QWL of TUMS HospitalsÃ¢â¬â¢ Employees as an approach model and recommended that 30 QWL teams consisting of mangers and employees were conducted in all fifteen of TUMS hospitals. ManagerÃ¢â¬â¢s teams were formed with TUMS Hospitals Nursing Administrators and Head of Clinical and Supportive departments. EmployeeÃ¢â¬â¢s teams were formed with representatives of TUMS Nursing, Supportive and Paramedical employees. QWL committee members spent additional time to gather the information about the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ improving QWL at each hospital. Following sev- ive ch 82 Ar of SI Results functions which shape their organizations, effectiveness. Such functions include performance management mechanisms, employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s career development, and employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ involvement. A tried a tested framework allows health care organizations such as hospitals to address key issues that are of concern for hospitals (4). Therefore, a high QWL is essential for health care organizations to continue to attract and retain employees (5). QWL is a comprehensive program designated to improve employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ satisfaction (6). Several studies found a strong relationship between job satisfaction and QWL for health care organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ employees (7). The research reported aimed to provide the processes used to investigate and implement a pathway for TUMS HospitalsÃ¢â¬â¢ Employees as an approach model to improve QWL for them. eral meetings, 30 QWL teams identified similar key common themes of dissatisfaction. These data are showed in Fig. 1. QWL teams declared these data to QWL Strategic Planning Committee. At first, based on the identified key themes a total of 12 areas were developed by the QWL Strategic Planning Committee (Fig. 2). In the next step, a cross- sectional, descriptive and analytical survey with 942 employees as 20% of total employees at 15 TUMS hospitals were asked to rate of their agreement or disagreement in relation to a series of statements using Lickert Type Scale were developed by QWL Committee as shown in Fig. 2. However, the questionnaires were distributed to 15 TUMS HospitalsÃ¢â¬â¢ Employees and 755 of them were returned, the response rate achieved to 90%. A number of employees were chosen to offer written comments. Many of the comments mirrored those that were made in the QWL Teams and Strategic Planning Committee. You read "An Approach Model for EmployeesÃ¢â¬â¢ Improving Quality of Work" in category "Essay examples" The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software. The results were broken into four sections of employees just managers, nurses, supportive (non- clinical) and paramedical employees. Ã¢â¬â 2/3 of the employees believed that they were unsatisfied because they could not participate in decision-making. Ã¢â¬â Only 20% of the respond ants indicated that they were satisfied and very satisfied with their job motivation. Ã¢â¬â 54. % of the respondents believed that their managers and supervisors did not observe fundamentals of human relations in their hospitals. Ã¢â¬â 2/3 of the respondents had not trust to their senior management. Ã¢â¬â The vast majority (96. 9%) of the respondents indicated that they are paid not enough. Ã¢â¬â The vast majority (98. 4%) of the respondents indicated that they were unsatisfied with their job welfare. D www. SID. ir Iranian J Publ Health, Vol. 36, No. 4, 2007, pp. 81-86 Ã¢â¬â The vast majority (92. 3%) of the employees believed that they were unsatisfied with cash payment to them. All of the employees expressed that they were unsatisfied with non cash payment to them. 72. 3% of the employees believed that they were unsatisfied with support from their supervisors. According to the results, there were no observable differences among the four groups in their rating of respect. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Human resource issues relating to workload and staffing Ã¢â¬ ¢ Management practices Ã¢â¬ ¢ Leadership issues Ã¢â¬ ¢ Inadequate rewards and income Ã¢â¬ ¢ Loss of respect , trust and income among people Ã¢â¬ ¢ More involvement in decision making Identified need from assistance for employees to deal with burnout and change Ã¢â¬ ¢ Care taking function is not supported by TUMS Hospitals as a whole Fig. 1: Dissatisfaction Themes form employees and managers QWL teams. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Organization commitment Trust Ar Fig. 2: Set of 12 dissatisfaction measures developed by QWL Strategic Planning Committee ch Support 11. Respect Monetary Compensation Non monetary Compensation Leadership Attendance management Communication between managers and employees Communication between managers and managers 0. Overall Communication 12. Recognition ive of SI 83 D www. SID. ir Ã¢â¬ ¢ Poor communication between employees and management H Dargahi, J Nasle Seragi: An Approach Model forÃ¢â¬ ¦ Fig. 3: New Structural Approach Model to improve QWL at TUMS Hospitals, 2005 Discussion The results showed that the perceived strongest areas among 12 categories developed by QWL Strategic Planning Committee that employees agreed to improve on their QWL, were communication, leadership, monitory and non monitory compensation , and support. High scores for poor communicatio n were noted between managers/supervisors with employees need improvement. Though, the developments of a Ã¢â¬Å"communication strategyÃ¢â¬ suggest establishing clear communication focusing on linkages between managers and employees. The most important predictable QWL belief the organization carries out is mission statement, good communication, good organization support for training and development, good decision latitude and being satisfied with the organizations recognition of employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ contribution (8). Areas outlined for leadership improvement include visibility of senior leaders, increased awareness of employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ needs and perspectives including increasing of opportunities for participitation in decision making. Canadian Nurses Association Position Statement identified the following elements for which stakeholders in health care field have a responsibility: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Staffing decisions based on existence with direct input from professional nurses. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Opportu nities for nurses at all levels to participate in decision making. 84 Ar h ive of SI Ã¢â¬ ¢ Support for nurses to use evidence- based decision making (9). Ã¢â¬â A formal, organization- wide system of monetary and non monetary compensation and rewarding employees for their accomplishments would be highly beneficial. Increased workload and fiscal restraint occurred in recent years, left employees feeling pressure in their jobs. It seems that the support structure at 15 TUMS Hospitals should be reviewed for improvement and available to employees, including review of workload and support from supervisors. Wood wardÃ¢â¬ studied about supervisor social support scale included supervisor helpfulness. Concern the welfare of employees and ability to facilitate effective interaction among employees in a large teaching hospital at Ontario (10). The information that gathered and analyzed by QWL managersÃ¢â¬â¢ teams and QWL employees teams in each TUMS Hospitals represented to QWL Strate gic Planning Committee. QWL Strategic Planning Committee evaluated the results from this survey and developed new approach model to improve the employees, QWL at 15 TUMS Hospitals (Fig 3). The ChancellorÃ¢â¬â¢s Coordinating Committee on QWL was formed late 2002 to provide a point of coordination and support to advance the QWL for University of CaliforniaÃ¢â¬â¢s Employees. The committee focused on three areas- communications, training and rewards. Recognition all of which D www. SID. ir Iranian J Publ Health, Vol. 36, No. 4, 2007, pp. 81-86 were identified as priorities by the chancellors based on results of employees survey (11). One of the initial goal of the QWL Strategic Planning Committee was the collaborative effort to define what an organization looks like with a high QWL. The committee created the following philosophy, which continuous to be celebrated to day: An organization with a high QWL is an organization that promotes and maintains a work environment that results in excellence in everything it does-by ensuring open communication, respect, recognition, truss, support, well being and satisfaction of its members, both personality and professionalism. The results of a survey were conducted in Canada at 2001 showed that QWL is a multidimensional construct and a global evaluation of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s workplace and context. The implications of these finding are currently being deliberated as they relate to improving QWL with each health care organization (12). The QWL Strategic Planning Committee recommend 15 TUMS hospitals as new approach model to suggest the ways which impressive on the employees improving QWL as below : Ã¢â¬â Communication: It investigates the ways not only to enhance employees skills on the quality assurance system, but to keep the system updated and organized, ensuring edified and easily available. Reward and recognition: It will significantly improve one initiative includes the development of a Ã¢â¬Å"star performerÃ¢â¬ program to allow all employees to recognize each other. Any employee that receives a star performer note is visited by TUMS Hospital Senior Management and presented with a Ã¢â¬Å"QWL Star Ã¢â¬Å"to recognize how important each of them is to the organization. Ã¢â¬â Attendance Management: It suggests turning the pre-existing attendance management policy from one that appears to punish employees for absenteeism, to one that rewarded employees for working to reduce their absenteeism. This may be achieved by developing a reward system for employees who worked for a three- month period without taking on unscheduled day off. Each ch ive quarter, a draw is held for prizes. To create further incentives, approval is received to create a grand prize for employees not to take day off and do additional work. There will be very positive feedback from employees and resulting in a reduction in absenteeism. Ã¢â¬â Leadership: It investigates leadership and literature attempting firstly to gain a better understanding of leadership techniques to find how practices at each TUMS Hospitals. The outcome to date is the development of a leadership education program to educate our management on the concept of leadership. Ã¢â¬â Support and Decision Making: It investigates employees participitation in decision making is a good opportunities to be satisfied with their job. QWL in Health Care Services organizations accreditation is a major step forward. Many concurrent initiatives across Canada address employees QWL needs and concerns from different angles. There is also significant progress in this direction in the United Status where the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organization (JCAHO) has committed to improve the quality of health care work place (13). We look forward to perform our Approach Model outcomes to improve QWL of TUMS Hospitals Employees in future. Ar of SI References Acknowledgements We would like to thank Medical Sciences/Tehran University Hospitals senior managers and employees because this survey would not have been possible without their assistance. This research has been supported by Medical Sciences/Tehran University. The authors declare that they have no Conflict of Interests. 1. Knox S, Irving JA (1997). Interactive quality of work life model applied to organization. Jona, 271:39-47. 2. Kruger P (2002). Organization predictors of job satisfaction findings from Canadian mul85 D www. SID. ir H Dargahi, J Nasle Seragi: An Approach Model forÃ¢â¬ ¦ 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 86 Ar ch ive tisided quality of work life cross-sectional survey. BMC Health Services Research, 2(6):1-12. Yoder L (1995). Staff nurses career development relationships and self- reports of professionalism, job satisfaction, and intent to stay. Nurse Res, 44(5):290-97. Anonymous (2005). Improve the performance of your organization. A guide to investors in people and improving quality of work life (IQWL) practice plus for the NHS. Available from: www. Investor inpeople. Co. Uk/health Sendrich K (2003). Putting the emphasis on employees as an award. Winning employer. Baptist Health Care has distant memories of the workplace shortage. Trustee January, P (G-10). Anonymous (2005). Frequently asked question. Available from: http://www. Hhs. Gov/ohr/faqs/index. Html Blegen M (1999). Nurses job satisfaction. A Meta- analysis of related variable. Nurse Res, 42:36-41. 8. Joseph J, Deshpande SP (1997). The impact of ethical climate on job satisfaction of nurses. Health Care Manage Rev, 22(1):76-81. 9. Graham SL (2001). Quality Professional Practice Environment for registered nurses. Canadian Nurses Association. Position Statement, Ottawa. 10. Woodward C (1999). The impact of re- engineering and other cost reduction strategies on the staff of a large teaching hospital: A longitudinal study. Med Care, 37(6): 556-69. 11. Anonymous (2005). Chancellor forms committee to address work life issues. University of California, San Francisco. Available from: www. Pub. UCSF. Edu 12. Lohfeld L (2000). Personal Communication. ST. JosephÃ¢â¬â¢s Health system Quality of Work Life Technical Reports. 13. Eisenberg JM (2001). Ã¢â¬Å"Does a Healthy Health care workplace produce higher quality careÃ¢â¬Å"? The joint commission journal on quality improvement. 27(a):444-57. of SI D www. SID. ir How to cite An Approach Model for EmployeesÃ¢â¬â¢ Improving Quality of Work, Essay examples
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Organisational Behavior and Developmen. Answer: Introduction Motivation is considered to be all employees intrinsic enthusiasm towards achieving and accomplishing activities related to their workplace. Motivation is the ultimate inherent drive of individuals that helps them in taking decisions and actions (Reeve, 2014). The motivational factors in individuals are affected by their intellectual, social, biological and emotional elements. However, motivation is a complex force, which cannot be easily defined, inherent and a driving force that at times gets influenced by certain external factors. Motivation is existent in every individual. Every individual, employee has a people, events, activities and objectives present in his or her life that drives their motivation. Therefore, it can be comprehended that motivation towards any particular aspect of an individual's life is existent in his or her consciousness and actions (Weiner, 2013). In the workplace, it is the responsibility of the employer to find ways to inspire the motivational force inside employees. For the employees to work in an extremely motivational environment, there is a need for the presence of essentially fulfilling and extrinsically cheering factors. Employee motivation covers the aspects of employee need fulfillment and workplace expectations and other workplace factors that are extremely helpful in enabling employee motivation. These factors do the job of motivating employees challenging for the employers. Employers comprehend the need of providing a motivating work environment for their employees (Heckhausen, 2012). However, many employers fail to understand the importance of this as a driving force in the achievement of their vision and mission. At times, employers understand the significance but lack the skill and knowledge for providing the same to foster employee motivation. The positive results of employee motivation like creativity, increa sed productivity, proactively and empowerment is lost on many leaders. In this report, these factors and their effects on organizational behaviour and the overall organizational development would be discussed with the help of three empirical research works, which would be analyzed and interpreted to help in the advancement of this research area (Herzberg, Mausner Snyderman, 2011). Discussion In the article by Adam Grant and James Berry, The Necessity Of Others Is The Mother Of Invention: Intrinsic And Prosocial Motivations, Perspective Taking, And Creativity the authors talk about the role of intrinsic motivation and role it plays in fueling creativity in individuals. They have gone through previous researches and found equivocal results. The workplace is becoming extremely dynamic, knowledge-based and uncertain, and organizations are depending on employees more and more for generation of creative ideas (Grant Berry, 2011). For long, scholars and practitioners have attempted to comprehend the factors motivating creativity in individuals. It has been believed for several decades that creativity is driven by intrinsic motivation. However, there have been equivocal opinions about the link between intrinsic motivation and creativity. Therefore, there has been observed a more in-depth and direct attempt to tackle this linkage. The main objective of this article is to discuss and solve the confusion regarding the incoherent association among intrinsic motivation and creativity. For that, the article takes help of motivated information processing theory from social psychology that helps in offering a capable theoretical structure for both elucidation and resolution of the discrepancies. What the inside begin of motivated information processing theory is that motivation shapes mental processing: delegates particularly observe, encode, and hold information that is dependable with their longings. As needs are, when agents are distinctively motivated, their desires to learn, examine their interests, and associate with their advantage will lead them to focus on astute considerations. In any case, to convey inventive contemplations, laborers furthermore need to deal with accommodation. Late headways in motivated information processing theory prescribe that laborers are most likely going to deal with support when they experience prosocial motivationthe longing to benefit otherswhich urges them to consider others' perspectives. In this way, it has been estimated that when guided by the prosocial motivation to take others' perspectives, laborers will channel their characteristic motivation toward conveying musings that are novel, and in addition important, likewise fulfilling higher creativity. The audit has given simultaneous evidence in support revealing that perspective taking, as delivered by prosocial motivation, strengthens the connection between trademark motivation and creativity. In the article by Sharon K. Parker,Uta K. Bindl and Karoline Strauss, Making Things Happen: A Model of Proactive Motivation proactivity has been stated as a driving process that drives the setting of goals and achieving them too. The makers perceive an extent of proactive goals that individuals can look for after (Parker, Bindl Strauss, 2010). These vary on two estimations: the future they expect to acknowledge (finishing a predominant individual fit inside one's working environment, upgrading the affiliation's inward working, or enhancing the affiliation's essential fit with its condition) and whether the self or situation is being changed. The makers then perceive can do, reason to, and energized to motivational states that provoked proactive, objective setting and manage objective endeavoring. Can do motivation rises out of perspective of self-feasibility, control, and (low) cost. Reason to motivation relates to why someone is proactive, including reasons spilling out of inherent , composed, and perceived motivation. Energized to motivation insinuates started positive loaded with feeling states that induce proactive target control. The makers propose more distal antecedents, including particular complexities (e.g., character, qualities, learning and limit) and also significant assortments in leadership, work diagram, and social climate, which affect the proactive motivational states and like this bolster or prevent proactive target methods. In the article by Xiaomeng Zhang and Kathryn M. Bartol, Linking Empowering Leadership and Employee Creativity: The Influence of Psychological empowerment, Intrinsic Motivation, And Creative process Engagement the research has been manufactured and attempted a theoretical model associating drawing in leadership with creativity through a couple intervening elements. Using study information from master delegates and their directors in a tremendous information development association in China, the investigation found that, of course, empowering leadership emphatically impacted mental fortifying, which in this way influenced both natural motivation and inventive process engagement. These last two variables then affected creativity (Zhang Bartol, 2010). Fortifying part identity coordinated the association between empowering leadership and mental reinforcing, while leader comfort of creativity coordinated the relationship between mental reinforcing and imaginative process engagement. This research makes five different types of contribution. To begin with, the general responsibility is that the investigation has collected and attempted a sensible model that strikingly fuses empowering leadership theory with basic creativity hypotheses. Despite the way that different surveys have inspected associations between leadership style and specialist creativity, empowering leadership has been shockingly truant from thought. Be that as it may, as the investigation has battled and especially illustrated, there are strong theoretical motivations to envision that connecting with leadership will be particularly arranged to effect nuts and bolts central innovative outcomes, a question that has been maintained observationally here. The results reinforce proposition by creativity specialists that leadership approaches watching out for the underpinnings of creativity may be intense means for enabling creativity. Second, the survey adds to both the leadership and the reinforcing abstract works by taking a gander at and certifying mental fortifying as an interceding instrument through which empowering leadership finally impacts agent creativity. Third, the audit is fascinating in clarifying the relationship of mental reinforcing with inherent motivation, and in addition innovative process engagement. More especially, the survey shows that, obviously, mental reinforcing was determinedly related to natural motivation. Fourth, the survey especially adds to the creativity composing by showing the centrality of innovative process engagement in clearing up inventive laborer outcomes. More especially, a couple of creativity researchers have demonstrated the centrality of distributing more conspicuous research keenness in regards to the innovative strategy itself if the perception of how imaginative outcomes are an expert is to create. Finally, this survey in like manner shows mediation by trademark motivation between mental fortifying and agent creativity particularly and moreover roundabout, through its effect on innovative process engagement. The results exhibit that natural motivation working through creative process engagement by implication influences inventive execution that is more grounded than its quick effect on imaginative execution. Links to the Articles The three discussed articles all deal with motivation and the factors that lead to the motivation of the employees in the workplace. The three identified elements from the article analysis are leadership, proactivity and creativity in driving motivation in the employees at their workplace. What has been found from this discussion is that a proactive personality is strongly associated with specialist creativity. In addition, work creativity need and executive reinforce for creativity commonly influenced the association between proactive personality and laborer creativity. Specifically, proactive agents demonstrated the most lifted specialist creativity when work creativity need and director reinforce for creativity were both high. The differences in the three articles are found in the employed research methods. We can see regression analysis, standard deviation and literature analysis used in the data collected in the three articles. The practical implications of these researches are for organizations and the employees. Administrators normally hope to vitalize creativity by making conditions that are useful for intrinsic motivation, for instance, plotting testing and complex errands, giving self-govern, and making solid feedback and evaluation structures. The examination prescribes that these practices hazard enhancing intrinsic motivation without also building up the prosocial motivation and perspective taking that can support the era of musings that are inventive in the setting. In that limit, we recommend that directors propelled by filling creativity will surmise that its ideal to make conditions that support prosocial motivation and perspective taking. For example, chiefs may clearly introduce open entryw ays for perspective taking among agents and their clients or suppliers, structure open entryways for laborers to team up with the beneficiaries or end customers of their work or pass on the sincerity of customers' and associates' issues. These conditions can overhaul prosocial motivation and perspective taking by engaging agents to feel for others' needs and end up being more aware of the refinement that their considerations can make in others' lives. Conclusion: Behind the success of every business, organization employees play a significant role. The entire study has provided an in-depth understanding of the impact of employee motivation for receiving good performance from them. Based on the three distinct articles depicted by eminent scholars the value and importance of employees' motivation for organizational success has been portrayed throughout the entire study. In the first article, the author has shown a vivid relation between intrinsic motivation and creativity. Intrinsic motivation is driven by the rewards that encourage an individual employee for performing well towards rendering the business success. The second article deals with the importance of proactive motivation in receiving a good performance from the employees. While working within particular business organizations both the business leaders as well as employees have to be proactive in maintaining a team rapport. Any communication barrier, psychological barrier or religious barrier can affect the systematic and rhythmic flow of business. The third article has portrayed an effective relation among intrinsic motivation, creativity, proactive motivation and leadership. In this specific study, the articles have critically evaluated on how the contribution of an efficient leader is highly important in order to reach the peak of success References Grant, A. M., Berry, J. W. (2011). The necessity of others is the mother of invention: Intrinsic and prosocial motivations, perspective taking, and creativity.Academy of management journal,54(1), 73-96. Heckhausen, H. (2012).Motivation and action. Springer Science Business Media. Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., Snyderman, B. B. (2011).The motivation to work(Vol. 1). Transaction publishers. Parker, S. K., Bindl, U. K., Strauss, K. (2010). Making things happen: A model of proactive motivation.Journal of management. Reeve, J. (2014).Understanding motivation and emotion. John Wiley Sons. Weiner, B. (2013).Human motivation. Psychology Press. Zhang, X., Bartol, K. M. (2010). Linking empowering leadership and employee creativity: The influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation, and creative process engagement.Academy of management journal,53(1), 107-128. Amabile, T. M., Pillemer, J. (2012). Perspectives on the social psychology of creativity.The Journal of Creative Behavior,46(1), 3-15. De Jesus, S. N., Rus, C. L., Lens, W., Imaginrio, S. (2013). Intrinsic motivation and creativity related to product: A meta-analysis of the studies published between 19902010.Creativity Research Journal,25(1), 80-84. Ma, Y., Cheng, W., Ribbens, B. A., Zhou, J. (2013). Linking ethical leadership to employee creativity: Knowledge sharing and self-efficacy as mediators.Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal,41(9), 1409-1419. Rego, A., Sousa, F., Marques, C., e Cunha, M. P. (2012). Authentic leadership promoting employees' psychological capital and creativity.Journal of Business Research,65(3), 429-437. Sun, L. Y., Zhang, Z., Qi, J., Chen, Z. X. (2012). Empowerment and creativity: A cross-level investigation.The Leadership Quarterly,23(1), 55-65. Yidong, T., Xinxin, L. (2013). How ethical leadership influence employees innovative work behavior: A perspective of intrinsic motivation.Journal of Business Ethics,116(2), 441-455.